Amos’s Earthquake: A Mountain of Evidence

Nearly 2,800 years ago, a megaquake shook ancient Israel. So says the Bible—and so says a mountain of archaeological evidence. And could it really have been prophesied in advance?
Ruins at ‘En Hazeva. The heavy slant in the large, early center wall is attributed by archaeologists to Amos’s eighth-century earthquake.
Dan McLerran | Popular Archaeology Magazine

“The words of Amos, who was among the herdmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake” (Amos 1:1).

Amos is one of the earliest prophets in the Bible to have a book named after him. Any direct evidence of the man himself is elusive (as with most biblical prophets, and understandably so). But as for what has become known as “Amos’s earthquake”? There are, quite literally, piles of evidence that show why such an event lived in infamy—under the name “the earthquake.”

Let’s take a look.

The Biblical Account

Amos (Jan Snellinck, 1579)

According to biblical chronology, this quake happened sometime during the first half of the eighth century b.c.e. Amos 1:1 and Zechariah 14:5 reveal that it took place during the reigns of Jeroboam ii of Israel and Uzziah of Judah—two kings whose reigns overlapped for a narrow 14-year window (Jeroboam the earlier king, and Uzziah the latter; 2 Kings 15:1). Furthermore, the historian Josephus writes that the earthquake happened at the time that Uzziah became a leper, further constricting the time frame to the very end of that 14-year period (2 Chronicles 26). Thus, depending on the chronology, the earthquake must have occurred during the 770s or 760s b.c.e., at the end of Jeroboam’s reign.

Besides the first verse of Amos (and several other references throughout his book relating to earthquake-like destruction), the Prophet Zechariah mentions the event in Zechariah 14:5: “Yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake In the days of Uzziah king of Judah ….”

The fact that Zechariah was a second temple prophet, writing some 250 years after the event, speaks to the magnitude and infamy to which it was held. Here, he compares the earthquake to a prophesied end-time event, prior to the coming of the Messiah.

The Archaeological Account

At numerous eighth-century b.c.e. site-levels throughout the Levant, archaeologists have found massive amounts of earthquake damage. Taken together, with synchronized dating, the remains correlate to an event that can be pinpointed around 760 b.c.e. Evidence at the sites include tilted or collapsed walls, twisted and sunken floors, masonry and stones split apart. (Besides the parallel dating, these types of ruins are readily discernible from warfare damage, as there is no corresponding burn layer, remains of weaponry, etc.)

Haaretz archaeology writer Ruth Schuster effectively summarized the evidence in her article Fact-checking the Book of Amos: There Was a Huge Quake in the Eighth Century b.c.e.:

Evidence of catastrophe in eighth-century b.c.e. northern Israel is legion. A destruction layer at Hazor was dated by Israel Finkelstein and Yigal Yadin to 760 b.c.e., the right time frame for Amos. At Lachish, David Ussishkin found a destruction level from the same time. Acre also has a similar layer dating to the mid-eighth century b.c.e.

[At Megiddo], the archaeologists describe “tilted walls and pillars, bent and warped walls, fractured building stones, dipping floors, liquefied sand, mudbrick collapse and burnt remains.” …

[Tel Abu Hawam] was destroyed after the quake and not rebuilt. Damage found at Tel Dan also fits the timeline of the biblical quake. … [Tel Shafi] had a 4-meter-thick (13-foot) wall that fell onto its side ….

Ruins at ‘En Hazeva, southern Judah. The heavy slant in the large center wall, attributed to Amos’s earthquake, is clearly visible.
Dan McLerran | Popular Archaeology Magazine

The list of various sites with earthquake evidence could go on. Deir Alla, in Jordan. Samaria, in the heart of Israel. Tell Judeideh. Tel Gezer in the west. ‘En Haseva in the far south. Core samples, mined from Ein Gedi, Ein Feshkha and Nahal Tze’elim, revealed deformed sedimentary layers that were carbon-14 dated to the same time period.

As Dr. Steven Austin writes regarding Tel Gezer’s outer city wall: “[H]ewn stones weighing tons [were] cracked and displaced several inches off their foundation. The lower part of the wall was displaced outward (away from the city), whereas the upper part of the wall fell inward (toward the city) still lying course-on-course. This indicates that the wall collapsed suddenly.”

Map showing epicenter and cities damaged by the earthquake
Public Domain

So great is the amount of evidence spread throughout the Levant, in fact, that scientists have determined that the epicenter was likely in Lebanon and that its strength was probably around a magnitude 8.2 (at very least a 7.8), with a Modified Mercalli intensity in Israel of 9. Dr. Steven Austin continues: “[This event] appears to be the largest yet documented on the Dead Sea Transform fault zone during the last four millennia. The Dead Sea Transform fault likely ruptured along more than 400 kilometers as the ground shook violently for over 90 seconds! The urban panic created by this earthquake would have been legendary.”

The long duration of the earthquake—90 seconds—helps explain the Prophet Zechariah’s statement that people were “fleeing” while the earth was still rumbling.

The Bible does not provide a death toll, but can we get a sense of what the human cost might have been?

The Historical Account

We do have data from later earthquakes that hit the region—although of somewhat lesser intensity. Two intensity-8 earthquakes are known to have occurred on the Dead Sea Transform fault in antiquity—one in c.e. 749, killing 100,000 people; and one in c.e. 526, killing 255,000. And Amos’s earthquake is estimated as another intensity level higher!

Worldwide, the deadliest-known earthquake in history was the 1556 Shaanxi earthquake in China. Fatalities numbered at just under 1 million. This was a magnitude-8.0 earthquake (compared to Amos’s 8.2-magnitude quake).

Second is the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (again, in China)—a magnitude-7.8 quake, for which the death toll varies wildly (around 250,000 to 700,000).

San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Magnitude 7.9, maximum Mercalli intensity 11. The earthquake destroyed over 80 percent of San Francisco.
Public Domain

You might remember the 2010 Haiti earthquake on the newswires (and some of our readers might remember the Tangshan, above); the 7.0 Haiti quake comes in seventh with around 300,000-plus dead.

Of course, death tolls depend on population density, quality of structures, etc.—so no direct comparison is possible. Nonetheless, it helps illustrate how frightening Amos’s more powerful earthquake truly was.

Josephus provided additional details, writing that the earthquake occurred while Uzziah was attempting (contrary to God’s instructions) to offer incense in the temple in place of the priests. “[A] rent was made in the temple, and the bright rays of the sun shone through it, and fell upon the king’s face, insomuch that the leprosy seized upon him immediately” (Antiquities, 9.10.4; referring to the leprosy that Uzziah received at that moment, incapacitating him for the rest of his reign—2 Chronicles 26:16-21). Josephus also claimed that a nearby mountainside collapsed, causing a significant landslide that destroyed roads and the king’s prized gardens—again, fitting with Zechariah’s statement about people “fleeing” from the earthquake damage.

The dating and general data of this quake powerfully illustrate the accounts in Amos and Zechariah—“the earthquake.”

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Predicting Destruction

What is most often cited from the book of Amos, relating to the earthquake, is the first verse. This states the book’s contents as “two years before the earthquake,” a line that may have been added as a later preface addition to the text, to help date it—but also to show the dramatic fulfillment of some of Amos’s earth-shaking prophecies throughout the book. Prophecies such as the following:

  • “The Lord roareth from Zion … the top of Carmel shall wither” (1:2)
  • “I will smite the winter-house with the summer-house … the great houses shall have an end” (3:15)
  • “Smite the capitals, that the posts may shake; and break them in pieces …” (9:1)

Amos prophesied more than just literal earthquake-type destruction—his prophecies ultimately describe the final fiery destruction of Israel itself. Two years following his message, an earthquake struck—so states verse 1. It would have served as a powerful, punctuating warning at the time for the fulfillment of the rest of Amos’s prophecies.

Of course, two years is nothing in the span of the last 2,800 years: Despite the introduction verse, many readers will simply consider the entire Book of Amos to have been written after the earthquake—even after the destruction of Israel itself—as a pretense “prophetic” account.

But along these lines, I submit to you something rather peculiar and intriguing—something in much more recent history.

A Modern Earthquake Prophesied?

Our Watch Jerusalem editor in chief Gerald Flurry has written a lot about the prophetic nature of the book of Amos for our day—that it is primarily directed toward the end time. (Indeed, Bible commentaries note that certain events prophesied in Amos are unknown to ancient history.) I want to relate here some dramatic statements he made about a modern earthquake, based on certain of Amos’s prophecies. On Dec. 21, 1991, he made the following statement at a lecture (emphasis added throughout): “I wouldn’t even be surprised if within the next two years you … see a massive earthquake in this world, perhaps even in Pasadena, California.”

In an October 1993 message, he went further, stating the following: “Is it possible that God could strike with an earthquake … maybe even on January the 16th, 1994? Is it possible something like that could happen? Well yes, I would say it’s possible, especially in the state of California.”

He doubled down on his warning in a December 1993 article for the Trumpet magazine: “God also says He will punish Israel with the earthquake. Will an earthquake be the next California disaster?”

An earthquake, on or around Jan. 16, 1994, in or around Pasadena, California—warned about up to two years in advance. Ludicrous.

On Jan. 17, 1994, at 4:31 a.m., a massive 6.7-magnitude earthquake rocked Los Angeles County, California—the same county in which Pasadena is located, with the epicenter only 20 miles away. Known as the Northridge earthquake, the event remains, to this day, the costliest earthquake disaster in United States history.

The remains of mobile homes following the Northridge earthquake
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The scenes were apocalyptic. Dramatic pictures show crumbled freeways, collapsed apartment blocks, and vaporized mobile homes. Damage estimates were between $13 billion and $50 billion ($23 to $87 billion in today’s value). More than 70 people were killed, 9,000 injured, and 20,000 displaced. Alongside the sheer cost, other records were broken by this monster quake—including the fastest ground acceleration ever recorded in a U.S. urban area and the fastest peak ground velocity. The devastating quake has lived into infamy, with references in music and film; it also led to the formation of the California Earthquake Authority.

Take it for what you will. Many people dismiss the prophecies of the Bible or claim that the days of the prophets are over. But based on this one example (of many), I wouldn’t be so sure.

As Amos 3:7 says (King James Version): “Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets.”