Where did the Israelites cross the Red Sea?
Strangely enough, it is a question that for Bible literalists hasn’t long been debated. The standard wisdom was that it took place at the northern end of the Gulf of Suez, heading into the Sinai Peninsula, with a Mount Sinai at the bottom end of the peninsula. Indeed, this was the crossing point shown in Cecil B. DeMille’s famous (and famously well-researched) 1956 film The Ten Commandments.
But over the last several decades, there has been significant debate surrounding two other options: a “Bitter Lakes” option (crossing one of the shallow inland lakes much further north of the Gulf of Suez); or notably a Gulf of Aqaba crossing, on the far side of the Sinai Peninsula—leading into what is today Saudi Arabia.
Last year, the Thinking Man film company that produces the Patterns of Evidence documentaries released a two-part film titled The Red Sea Miracle addressing this very question.
The Patterns of Evidence documentaries are well-produced, thought-provoking films examining the historical evidence for some of the greatest stories in the Bible—namely, the slavery of the Israelites, the existence of Moses, the Exodus, and the parting of the Red Sea. Patterns of Evidence: Exodus did a fantastic job in presenting the evidence for a historical Exodus that fits squarely with biblical chronology—during the 15th century b.c.e. The documentaries bring together different minds offering different views and opinions on the historicity, chronology, and location of various events.
Such was the case with the two-part Red Sea Miracle. But surprisingly, only two general crossing options were presented: a Bitter Lakes crossing, termed the “Egyptian approach”—as a more strictly “scientific,” physical explanation on the film; and a Gulf of Aqaba crossing, termed the “Hebrew approach”—as a literalistic “biblical” approach on the film.
Unfortunately, in the four hours of screentime, barely a minute was given to briefly mention and dismiss the crossing point that perhaps most naturally comes to mind: the Gulf of Suez.
The debate about where the Red Sea crossing took place has become a hot topic. Which is the biblically-accurate location? For this article, we’ll leave out the minimalist Bitter Lakes theory (as it is, in several points, contrary to the biblical account, and primarily exists to provide explanations for the miraculous events through only natural phenomena—Red Sea Miracle did a thorough job in covering this theory). We’ll instead compare the Gulf of Aqaba crossing theory with the Gulf of Suez, to see which best fits the literal biblical account.
Where Was Mount Sinai?
At the core of this debate (indeed, an impetus for certain researchers to consider a more distant Gulf of Aqaba crossing) is the identification of Mount Sinai—the location where Moses was first called by God, and the mountain before which the Israelites later encamped and received the Ten Commandments. This article is not intended to establish the exact identity of the mountain. But we will need to spend a little time on it based on how the geographic area relates to the sea crossing, which would have taken place west of it.
The long-standing traditional identification of Mount Sinai has been Jabal Mousa, “Moses Mountain,” located in the southern part of the Sinai Peninsula. (Unfortunately, we cannot look to the name Sinai Peninsula for proof of where Mount Sinai was, because it is an apparently more modern term given based on the traditional identification of Jabal Mousa as Mount Sinai.) Jabal Mousa became particularly well-known and regarded as Mount Sinai through the early Christian-Byzantine period, but evidence points to the site being recognized as Mount Sinai by Jewish religious leaders 2,000 years ago. Evidence also shows that it was a pilgrimage site for the Nabataeans as early as the third century b.c.e. (The Nabataeans likewise held Moses in esteem.)
A Mount Sinai in the Sinai Peninsula means that the sea crossing must have taken place to the west—i.e. the Gulf of Suez. The towering mountain and surrounding ranges certainly make for an impressive site. But over the past several decades, an increasingly popular alternative mountain has been posited: Jabal al-Lawz.
Known as the “almond mountain,” this site is located just east of the Gulf of Aqaba in modern-day Saudi Arabia. There’s some debate surrounding the naming of this mountain and the nearby Jabal Maqla (“burnt mountain,” see illustration on right). The Bible gives two synonymous names for the mountain of God, Horeb and Sinai (i.e., Malachi 4:4, King James Version); in the case of the Aqaba-crossing theory (depending on the proponent), Maqla represents one, and al-Lawz the other; two peaks of the same mountain range. Specifically, the blackened tip of Jabal Maqla is seen as the place where God descended in “fire” to deliver the 10 Commandments (Exodus 19:18; see the short drone footage of the black-topped mountain below).
We know, based on classical historical accounts, that Mount Sinai was the tallest in the region (hence Jabal Mousa in the Sinai, Jabal al-Lawz in Saudi Arabia). But which is the right region—and thus which is the right gulf crossing corresponding to it?
Proponents for a Red Sea crossing in the Gulf of Aqaba point out the statement by the New Testament Apostle Paul, who mentions “mount Sinai in Arabia” (Galatians 4:25). Likewise, they point out that Mount Sinai is associated with the land of Midian (Exodus 2-3). Midian is traditionally located in modern-day Saudi Arabia, and Jabal al-Lawz is located in the heart of a range of mountains known as the Midian Mountains. Distinct from the Sinai Peninsula, this is a range of volcanic mountains, which proponents connect to the “smoke and fire” of God’s presence on Mount Sinai.
Further, Aqaba proponents point out that the Sinai Peninsula was part of Egypt: Given Moses fled to Midian from Egypt, and the sea crossing took place to remove the Israelites from Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula could not have been the location of Mount Sinai, and the sea crossing could not have happened at the Gulf of Suez—the sea crossing must have taken place on the other side of the peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba. Furthermore, the impassable mountain ranges on the western shore of the Gulf of Aqaba harken dramatically to the biblical account of Israel being “trapped” before the Red Sea.
The evidence seems compelling: Jabal al-Lawz/Maqla must be Mount Sinai, northwest Saudi Arabia must have been the place of the Israelites’ 40-year sojourn, and the Gulf of Aqaba must have been the location of the Red Sea crossing.
But it is not quite that simple.
It is natural today to look at the Sinai Peninsula and consider it “Egyptian” territory, and western Saudi Arabia as the start of the “Arabian” territory. But historically, that hasn’t always been the case. In fact, it’s more of an historical aberration.
When Paul mentioned Mount Sinai “in Arabia,” the Sinai Peninsula was geographically considered part of Arabia. The Romans called this Sinai province, which they controlled from c.e. 106 to c.e. 630, Arabia Petraea (see map above, right)—which was primarily made up of the Sinai Peninsula.
And classical historians in the centuries leading up to Paul were likewise labeling the Sinai Peninsula as part of Arabia, not associated with Egypt in the west. The reason for this is its parallel geography to the rest of Arabia, as well as the same nomadic tribes of people who dwelled within. The Romans conquered their Sinai “Arabia” territory from the Arab Nabateans (left), whose kingdom spanned from the third century b.c.e. to c.e. 106. The Nabateans took it over from the Arab Qedarites (below, right).
Right up until the modern era, the Sinai Peninsula has been named the “Peninsula of the Arabs … one of the earliest seats of the Great Semitic race” (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, William Smith, 1854; emphasis added throughout). Smith even described the Sinai Peninsula as “a region which no other people has ever disputed with them [the Arabs].”
In fact, in the third century b.c.e., the Jewish translators of the Bible into the Septuagint Greek cited the land of Goshen, where the majority of the Israelites dwelled during their time in Egypt, as “of Arabia” (Genesis 46:34; lxx. Thus, if Paul’s first century “in Arabia” statement means that Mount Sinai cannot have been in the Sinai Peninsula, then by that same logic these Israelites were not slaves in Egypt!) Paul’s statement, then, in no way precludes a Mount Sinai in the Sinai Peninsula, and thus a crossing of the Gulf of Suez.
But there is another key biblical reason for this identification of Sinai (and even Goshen itself) with Arabia. In Genesis 15:18, God promised Abraham that his descendants (which include the Israelite and Arab peoples) would possess “this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the River Euphrates [Mesopotamia].” What was the river of Egypt? It was, of course, the Nile. The Israelites were given land in Goshen, east of the Nile, by the pharaoh (Genesis 47:6). 1 Kings 8:65 reveals that King Solomon controlled this territory, from Syria all the way to the “river of Egypt” (kjv). Even in 1967, the Sinai Peninsula was miraculously returned to Israeli control, before it was turned back over to the Egyptians some years later. Yet even the Muslim-dominated Egypt of today is distinct from the Hamitic/Cushite Egyptians of old (Genesis 10:6, Ezekiel 30:13).
And to this day, it is the Gulf of Suez on the western edge of the Sinai that is the modern border separating the continents of Africa and Asia. The Sinai Peninsula categorized, again, with the Arabian side—not Egypt.
Paul’s reference to Mount Sinai “in Arabia,” then, would only be expected to relate to the Sinai Peninsula. And one largely overlooked part of Paul’s statement is that he symbolically refers to Mount Sinai as Hagar, Abraham’s concubine. “The first woman, Hagar, represents Mount Sinai …” (Galatians 4:24; New Living Translation). Hagar was an Egyptian(Genesis 16:1). This at face value would lend to a location closer to Egypt, yet within what was then known as Arabia. And the first-century Egyptian writer Apion gets even more specific, stating that Mount Sinai was technically “between Egypt and Arabia.” This best fits the peninsula—and thus, a sea crossing west of it, at the Gulf of Suez.
This is one of the biggest points made for Jabal al-Lawz: the association of the biblical mountain with Midian. After all, Moses fled from Egypt to the “land of Midian” (Exodus 2:15), and it was while shepherding the flock of his “priest of Midian” father-in-law, Jethro, that he was called by God from the mountain. The territory of Midian is often identified as directly south of Israel, southeast of the ancient land of Edom, east of the Gulf of Aqaba (see map below, right). As stated on Patterns of Evidence, “archaeologists and scholars know where this ancient land is, and it is located in the northwest corner of what is known today as Saudi Arabia.”
But despite this assertion, the borders of the Land of Midian are very much not known. Borders are hard enough to establish for an ancient fixed civilization; the Midianites were a nomadic one. Some sense of this is relayed in the name Midian, meaning “strife”—thus, Land of Strife, befitting a general desert nomadic territory. The Midianites themselves are considered a “lost” civilization—virtually nothing related to their identity has been confirmed. There is a corpus of pottery colloquially known as “Midianite pottery,” but this pottery (properly known as Qurayyah Painted Ware) is dated long after the Exodus, ironically to the time the Midianites begin to disappear from the biblical account.
Still, one possible candidate for a chief Midianite sanctuary is located at the very tip of the Gulf of Aqaba (near Ezion-Geber on the map)—closer to the Sinai Peninsula than the “Midian Mountains.”
Besides this, though, the Bible itself nowhere says that Mount Sinai was in Midian (or even that Jethro was necessarily in Midian, for that matter). In describing Moses’s journey to Mount Sinai/Horeb, the Bible states that he went well out of his way. Moses “led the flock to the farthest end of the wilderness, and came to the mountain of God, unto Horeb” (Exodus 3:1). Other translations read “the backside of the desert” or “rear part of the wilderness.” The Hebrew word means a behind place, a hinder part. This would fit with the location of the traditional Mount Sinai, on the “hinder” end of the Sinai Peninsula.
The fourth-century c.e. historian Eusebius is sometimes referenced to support a “Sinai in Midian” theory. He stated that Horeb is the “mountain of God in the Land of Madiam.” But like Apion, he stated even more specifically that “it lies … beyond Arabia in the desert,” and part of the “outlying countryside of Madiam”—all statements that fit only with the Sinai Peninsula (and thus a Gulf of Suez crossing).
Midian certainly could have included the eastern part of the Sinai Peninsula—we just don’t know (and the eastern Sinai Peninsula has been included in old cartography as part of “Midian.”) But whether or not it did, that wouldn’t matter; Moses was a shepherd for 40 years. Given the desert “strife” conditions (mandating the nomadic nature of the Midianite people), he would have had to travel regularly to new grazing ground. He wouldn’t have remained singularly in a small zip code—the Bible tells us that. Recall the story of Jacob’s shepherd-sons, whom Joseph was sent to find: They were eventually found pasturing their sheep 60 miles away, from where they were “supposed” to be, in the north of Canaan—and that, in a far more fertile region (Genesis 37:14-17; it is also worth noting that even in this northern location, Midianites are mentioned—verses 28-36).
In the very same vein, what could be considered the modern “Midianites”—the Bedouin—regularly migrate to the Sinai Peninsula “in search of water and pasturage” (Encyclopedia Britannica). “From the very nature of the country, the wandering tribes of N. Arabia, the children of the desert, always did, as they do to this day, roam over that triangular extension [the Sinai Peninsula] of their deserts” (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography). The modern Tarabin Bedouin are the largest such group living in the Sinai Peninsula, and they can also be found in Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Saudi Arabia.
In his 40 years of shepherding, is it outside the realm of possibility that Moses traveled to the Sinai Peninsula—as the Bible describes, the “remotest,” “backside” part of the wilderness?
Further: If the mountain really had to be embedded firmly inside Midianite territory in Saudi Arabia, where were all the Midianites? Why is there no mention of them during the Israelite sojourn (besides a journeying Jethro, Exodus 18), until just before the Israelites are about to cross into the Promised Land—in and around the northern territory of Moab? (Numbers 22, 25, 31). Why are Midianites most frequently mentioned around these northern areas in the Levant, rather than this traditional territory of Saudi Arabia? (Genesis 36:35; 37:28; Numbers 22, 25, 31, Judges 6-7). And why, instead, are others mentioned around the territory of Mount Sinai—namely, the Amalekites? (Exodus 17).
Clearly, Mount Sinai was a territory somewhere remote to mainland Midian—again, fitting with the Sinai Peninsula, and again, fitting with a western, Gulf of Suez sea crossing to get to it.
Another point used to disqualify the Sinai Peninsula, and to mandate an Israelite crossing of the Gulf of Aqaba, is that the Sinai was considered part of ancient Egypt. Thus, the fleeing Moses wouldn’t have stopped within the territory—and the Israelites would not have been truly “out of Egypt” unless they crossed the Red Sea on the far side, at Aqaba. We have covered this in part above, as it relates to Paul’s statement and the geopolitical situation at the time of the first millennium b.c.e. But what about during the mid-second millennium b.c.e.—the time of the Exodus? Was it a part of Egypt?
Egypt at this time did have a handful of “frontier” mining outposts in the central and upper Sinai Peninsula. But they were just that—frontier outposts—that had to be constantly guarded from marauding tribes. (Such outposts were also located in the vicinity of Edom and up into Canaan and Syria—where God intended to send the Israelites. Was this territory likewise “Egypt”?) Given the remote location, Egyptian texts reveal repeat skirmishes with marauders and indigenous Arabs—guards had to be posted to deal with the real threat.
And this Sinai Peninsula setting would fit well with the biblical account. Because it is immediately after their crossing of the Red Sea that the Israelites are set upon by marauding Amalekites (Exodus 17).
Further, the peninsula was known as a place of banishment for Egyptian criminals. The fortress Tjaru, on the western edge of the Peninsula and north of the Gulf of Suez, has been discovered to be a place of banishment for criminals of the state. Such an identification would fit perfectly with a location from which Moses (and later the Israelites) would flee.
An earlier Patterns of Evidence documentary, Exodus, makes the convincing case for the Israelites as the “Hyksos” people that were expelled from Egypt in the mid-second millennium. Pharaoh Ahmose i actually built a border of fortresses (part of which included Tjaru) along the western edge of the Sinai Peninsula in order to keep the Semites out of Egypt (below right). This clearly shows that the Sinai was not “Egypt.” Furthermore, this shows that it must have been along this boundary—namely, south at the Gulf of Suez—that the Israelites must have crossed out of Egypt! (Exodus 14:2 also mentions a fortress, Migdol, near to the sea crossing point.)
There were a handful of Egyptian fortresses dotted across the northernmost coastal strip of the Sinai Peninsula. These were to guard Egypt’s interests in the vital trade route known as the “Way of Horus” or “Way of the Philistines.” (Again, in like manner though, such Egyptian defenses were built all the way up into Syria.)
Exodus 13:17 states that God did not want Israel to take this quickest, most direct “Way of the Philistines” route into Canaan. Why? Because it would mean the Israelites were “still in Egypt”? “[F]or God said, ‘Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt’” (verse 17). God did not want Israel to see war along this fortified Sinai trade route and be moved to return to Egypt!
This also aligns with Moses’s requests to Pharaoh to go “three days’ journey into the wilderness” to worship—far enough to be removed from Egyptian influence (e.g. Exodus 8:22-24; Josephus likewise stated that it took three days’ journey to get to the Red Sea—more on this further down. Note: The Bible translation used for this website is the Jewish Publication Society version, in which certain verses are numbered slightly differently. For other versions, see Exodus 8:25-27).
The Sinai Peninsula was not “Egypt.” One would expect that if it were, the peninsula as a whole would have a territorial name. But as James Hoffmeier points out in his book Ancient Israel in Sinai: “Sinai is not known in any Egyptian text. In fact, there seems to be no specific Egyptian name to cover the entire peninsula” (emphasis mine).
Geography of Mount Sinai
As for the more volcanic nature of the mountains east of Aqaba, relating to the fire, smoke, quaking and sound described in Exodus 19: It is an interesting theory, but a rather naturalistic explanation for a miraculous event (especially given the Aqaba crossing theory is presented in opposition to a “naturalistic” Bitter Lakes crossing.) Exodus 19:18 states that “mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire ….” The smoke was because of God’s descent, not because of the mountain “erupting.” (A somewhat comparable event happened at Solomon’s dedicating of the temple—1 Kings 8). Exodus 24:17 says that “the glory of the Lord was like devouring fire on the top of the mount.” The same mountain was also the site of the burning bush, where God spoke to Moses (Exodus 3). Was that also “volcanic activity”?
The blackened peak of Jabal Maqla is reportedly due to a makeup of black igneous volcanic rocks (it’s also worth pointing out that much of the surrounding general mountain range is also blackened—as shown below). The Bible doesn’t say anything about residue left from His presence on the mountain—but as far as the miracle of the burning bush, the biblical account specifies that no sign of fire was left (see also the same principle in Daniel 3). Moses’ person radiated brilliant light from his close proximity to God (Exodus 34). A case could be made for a similar effect on the summit, rather than a charring of the mountain.
Another point made for al-Lawz is that plenty of plains surround it for the Israelite camp, whereas the environs of Mousa are quite rugged and inaccessible (though there is a broader area to the south). But this fits with what Josephus recorded—that Mount Sinai was “very difficult to be ascended by men … because of the sharpness of its precipices also; nay, indeed, it cannot be looked at without pain of the eyes: and besides this, it was terrible and inaccessible” (Antiquities, 3.5.1.).
So Which Sea Was It?
Mountains and lands aside, can’t we tell where the Israelites crossed based on the name of the waterway?
The original meaning of the term used in the Bible, Yam Suph, has been hotly debated—primarily as meaning either “Sea of Reeds” or “End Sea.” We won’t get into the debate here—and besides, both meanings could technically work for the general area.
The Bible does describe Solomon having his southern navy fleet located at Yam Suph, on the shores of Ezion-Geber/Eloth (what is modern-day Eilat—see map right; 1 Kings 9:26). The name here thus clearly does refer to the Gulf of Aqaba. As such, one of the geography experts cited on the Red Sea Miracle states that Yam Suph could not have referred to both gulfs—Suez as well as Aqaba.
Yet in modern Hebrew, Yam Suph refers to the entire general Red Sea, including both gulfs. The New Testament Greek for the crossing site, Erethran Thalassan, likewise referred to the entire Red Sea. Why should the original title Yam Suph be any different?
And a nugget in the Exodus account points to the recognition of the entire Red Sea and gulfs as Yam Suph. Exodus 10:19 describes the plague of crop-destroying locusts being ended after the insects were drowned in Yam Suph. Note the map, right: The majority of Egypt bordered on the main body of the Red Sea, as well as the Gulf of Suez. Why would God fly the millions of locusts all the way across the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea, in order to deposit them in the narrow Gulf of Aqaba? Clearly, as it does today, the biblical Yam Suph did refer to more than “just” the Gulf of Aqaba. 1 Kings 9:26 does not preclude the Gulf of Suez.
In fact, 1 Kings 9:26 is some of the best evidence against a Gulf of Aqaba crossing. That’s because the wording used in the third century b.c.e. Septuagint Bible is different—the name for this Gulf of Aqaba body does have a distinction from the name used in all 22 biblical references to the sea that the Israelites crossed! The Septuagint calls this Gulf of Aqaba sea in 1 Kings 9:26 Eschates Thalasses. The body of water in which the Israelites crossed, however (including the name of the sea in which the locusts were drowned), is always referred to in the Septuagint (as in the New Testament) by the name Erythran Thalassan.
Thus, it becomes clear that the 2,300-year-old Jewish community recognized the Gulf of Aqaba as distinct and different to the actual sea that the Israelites crossed!
As with the identity of the Red Sea, there is even more debate surrounding the separate identities of the stations of the Exodus on the way to the crossing—Succoth, Etham, Pi-hahiroth, Migdol, Baal-zephon, etc. There are all manner of different locations identified as “proof” of different crossing points related to the Bitter Lakes, Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. As such, we won’t go into them here.
Suffice it to say, one of the primary points given for the Aqaba crossing is the sheer mountainous approach to the sea, within which the Israelites became trapped (Exodus 14:3)—good evidence against the clearly plains-like Bitter Lakes theory. But the approach to the northwestern shore of the Gulf of Suez is also rugged and mountainous. The region around Attaka and Ain Sokhna would fit nicely with the biblical account of the mountains that hemmed in the Israelites.
All that aside, the details of the distance and time frame of Israel’s journey out of Egypt provide some of the most fascinating and telling information about where the crossing would have taken place.
Hoofing It From a Fixed Starting Point
Located on the map (right) is the general Israelite starting point: Avaris. This was very effectively identified in the earlier Patterns of Evidence: Exodus documentary. Archaeological discoveries have helped to pinpoint this location as a sort-of “Israelite capital” in the wider, more generally established territory of the Land of Goshen. (It is also apparent that a contingent of Israelites—including Moses and Aaron—would have been further south, in or around the Egyptian capital Memphis; i.e. Exodus 12:31.)
Thus, we have the two general options: Either a roughly 250-mile journey from this starting location to the Gulf of Aqaba, and from there a roughly 50-mile journey to Jabal al-Lawz; or, a roughly 80-mile journey to the Gulf of Suez, and from there a 150-mile journey to Jabal Mousa. In other words: A huge journey to the sea crossing, then a short journey to the mountain (the Aqaba theory); or a short journey to the sea crossing, then a long journey to the mountain (the Suez theory). As below:
Put simply, the short-to-long route (above, red) is the only one that truly matches the biblical text. The journey to the Red Sea is covered in only around half a chapter of the Bible. The remaining journey from the Red Sea to Mount Sinai is covered in several chapters. This points to a shorter initial journey to the Red Sea, then a longer journey to Mount Sinai.
Josephus stated that it took only three days of journeying for the Israelites to reach the Red Sea. “But as they went away hastily, on the third day, they came to a place called Baalzephon, on the Red Sea” (Antiquities, 2.15.1). Long-standing tradition holds that the Israelites crossed the Red Sea seven days after the Passover (more on the reason for this further down). Only seven days until the crossing—or, according to Josephus’s account, three days of journey—an achievable trip to the Gulf of Suez, but an inconceivably short amount of time for the 250 miles to the Gulf of Aqaba.
These numbers cannot fit with the journey to the Gulf of Aqaba. The case is made on Patterns of Evidence that the Israelites could have made it in a week, partly thanks to their physical fitness as slaves (even the term “running” was used on the film). But there were obviously children and elderly, people of all ages.
Some have tried to make even a three-day trek fit for the Gulf of Aqaba: If the Israelites walked nonstop for three full days and nights at the average walking pace of 3.5 miles per hour, they would be able to cover a 250 mile journey in time (just). Exodus 13:21 is cited, describing God leading the Israelites by a pillar of fire by day and cloud by night.
But the verse says no such thing about such a marathon feat of endurance. Further, the Bible describes three separate encampments along the way to the Red Sea (verse 20; Numbers 33:5-8).
The Bible states that it took roughly two months to reach the territory of Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:1, Numbers 33:3). Two hundred fifty miles in a handful of days—50 miles in two months? The math does not add up.
Another element to consider is that while a bulk of the Hebrews were located in Goshen, that wouldn’t have been entirely the case. Patterns of Evidence spends some time establishing the biblical numbers—roughly 2 million Hebrews leaving Egypt (Exodus 12:37). That many Israelites would not have been stationed at the singular location of Avaris. Rather, these mid-second millennium b.c.e. Semitic slaves are known to have been spread right across Egypt. The description of the 10th plague also indicates that many of their houses were spread around the land, in and around Egyptian houses. Any Israelites in more distant locations (potentially days-journey away from Goshen?) would have been left far behind by a rapid charge across the north Sinai by a forward part of the Israelites. Was that the way of it?
Or did it take a few days into the Israelite departure for the various groups of Israelites to catch up? This would fit well with a Gulf of Suez crossing, preempted by several encampments (such as apparently for the Sabbath, at Succoth) along the way.
Added to that, there is the simple matter of crowd size. Given a crowd spread of 2 to 3 million people, replete with livestock and possessions, it would have taken the better part of a day’s journey for the people at the back to end up where the people at the front started off (with a potential crowd length anywhere from 10 to 20 miles). And this would have only been immensely exacerbated if the Israelites were threading through the extremely narrow mountainous southeast of the Sinai, on the way toward Nuweiba Beach (one of the primary theoretical locations for a crossing of the Gulf of Aqaba).
Another element to consider is the Pharaoh’s chase after the Israelites. Exodus 14:5 describes Pharaoh (based in Memphis) changing his mind immediately after “it was told the king of Egypt that the people were fled.” He subsequently pursued after them on horses and chariots, only finally catching up with them as they were arriving at the edge of the Red Sea. Are we to believe that his chariots and horsemen only finally caught up with them on the far side of the Sinai Peninsula—some 250 miles away?
In this same “distance” vein, there are other points that simply rule out a Gulf of Aqaba crossing, yet fit perfectly with the Gulf of Suez.
Of Wildernesses, Water and Complaining
The Bible describes only one “wilderness” before the Red Sea crossing—and then three or four entirely different wildernesses from the Red Sea to Mount Sinai (Josephus called them entire countries). This fits perfectly with the distance-layout for a Gulf of Suez crossing. But are we to believe that, for a Gulf of Aqaba crossing, the 250-mile journey across the Sinai Peninsula is referenced as barely a single wilderness—whereas the last 50-mile stretch to Jabal al-Lawz constitutes three or four different wildernesses, or countries? Again, in this respect, the math is the wrong way around.
But this biblical layout fits hand-in-glove with a Suez crossing: The single, shorter desert region just before the Gulf of Suez, followed by the well-known, standard geographical division of the Sinai Peninsula into three separate “wildernesses”: the northern Dune Sheet, the central Tih Plateau and the southern mountainous Sinai Massif.
The Bible also describes the Israelites “pitching” in only three different locations before the sea crossing—but it describes them pitching in eight different locations after it, on the way to Mount Sinai (Numbers 33:5-15). Which route fits better?
It is only after the Red Sea crossing that the Israelites begin to complain about water (Exodus 17:1-2). Why only in the short stretch from Aqaba to Jabal al-Lawz? Why no mention of water during the massive 250-mile stretch across the Sinai? And it is only after the Red Sea crossing that God starts to give the Israelites manna (Exodus 16). Why only in the final short stretch? Why not on the 250-mile hike? But these events do fit with the long desert journey deep into the Sinai Peninsula, following the short journey to a crossing at the Gulf of Suez.
Seabed Evidence of Crossing?
One of the most alluring things about the Patterns of Evidence: Red Sea Miracle documentary was the promise of potential chariot remains found at the bottom of the Gulf of Aqaba. For decades, this has been a topic on the fringes of the archaeological world, after the late amateur archaeologist Ron Wyatt declared that his diving team had found just that.
The second part of the documentary described some of Wyatt’s background. This was necessary, because he is looked upon poorly in the archaeological world. A nurse anesthetist by profession, Wyatt traveled all over the Middle East looking for biblically significant artifacts. He claims to have made numerous significant discoveries besides the chariot remains in the Gulf of Aqaba (and it was largely thanks to him that the Jabal al-Lawz site came into vogue), including: Noah’s ark, the Tower of Babel, Goliath’s sword, the real location of Jesus’s crucifixion, the ark of the covenant, even the “blood of Jesus” preserved on the ark—which, after he purportedly had it tested, came back to reveal “24 chromosomes”—“23 from Mary, and one from God.” He also claimed to have opened the lid and looked inside the ark to find only the Ten Commandments (crediting being a “born-again Christian” for not dying after looking inside it).
The main problem with several of Wyatt’s “discoveries” is that they are presented with little evidence. There are somehow no photos of the ark of the covenant. While there are photos of crooked coral formations, none of them can be proved to be chariots (and a marine biologist featured on Patterns of Evidence served to only disprove the possible preservation of such chariot remains). Wyatt also reportedly discovered a column bearing an inscription on the east bank of Aqaba, touting it as a marker set up by Solomon to commemorate where the Israelites exited the sea. Unfortunately, the present location of this pillar is unknown, along with any trace or images of the inscription purported by Wyatt to be Hebrew and translated by him as, “Egypt, Solomon, Edom, Death, Pharaoh, Moses, Yahweh.”
The film did a good job in providing some detail relating to ongoing diving efforts for remains in the Gulf of Aqaba by a group of enthusiasts. But no hard evidence was revealed.
But on this point, a Red Sea crossing at Aqaba brings up a problem: The seabed is a veritable Grand Canyon, reaching depths of 2,000 meters below sea level (after all, it is a continuation of the Jordan Rift Valley and Dead Sea Transform plate boundary). On the documentary, this was a point of attack by proponents of the Bitter Lakes crossing. But it was defended by proponents of the Aqaba crossing, in that a miracle-working God would have had no problem in helping the Israelites through this stretch of seabed.
The Israelites picking their way through a “Grand Canyon” is one thing; what beggars belief is that the Egyptians would follow them in on chariots. God would not have needed to kill the Egyptians with the walls of water smashing together—the terrain alone would have surely done so.
A couple of “underwater land bridges” that span Aqaba were pointed out as possible crossing points. One is from Nuweiba Beach. While it is certainly a “bridge” compared to the sheer drops on either side, it is still some 800 meters below sea level in the center—a yawning chasm. (For perspective, that’d be like walking alongside a wall of water as tall as the Burj Khalifa—at the shallowest center point of the gulf. Given water weighs one ton per cubic meter, if these walls crashed together, you can forget about anything being preserved.)
The other option presented is at the very bottom of the Sinai Peninsula, at the Straits of Tiran. Parts of this crossing are as shallow as 15 meters deep (and there is even a pair of islands in the middle of the straits). Container ships have to exercise some caution crossing through here. But the crossing also includes the immediate navigation of a canyon at the near edge, 300 meters deep (a corridor lane used by the container ships), with a 60 percent incline on the eastern side. Not to mention how much more the proposed lengthy journey itself, to get to the crossing point at the very bottom of the Sinai Peninsula (some 300 miles), strains the biblical account.
What wasn’t mentioned on the documentary, though, is how well the Gulf of Suez would fit, with its utterly smooth seabed. Much of the sea floor of the northern Suez reaches only 40 meters deep, with a gentle inclines on both ends—perfect for the Israelites on foot, as well as for the chariots and horsemen of Egypt to follow. Josephus stated the dried seabed was like a “road.” Psalm 106:9 describes the seabed as being like “a wilderness.” As shown in the topographical map below:
But all that aside, what must be the greatest evidence for a Suez Crossing is the vital holy day symbolism.
Holy Day Symbolism
As mentioned above, the crossing of the Red Sea is to this day commemorated on the seventh day after the Passover—the last day of the feast of Unleavened Bread. This seven-day festival, with its “high holy days” on the first and last of the seven days, is described in Leviticus 23:6-8. This festival pictures the complete removal of leaven, a symbol of sin, from our lives. In the Bible, Egypt is used as a metaphor for sin; Pharaoh as a metaphor for Satan. Thus, the death of the firstborn on the night of the Passover, in order to free the Israelites and pave the way for their escape—and then the final destruction of the Egyptian army, the last “hold” on the Israelites, on the final holy day of Unleavened Bread. Note also Exodus 12:16-17 (from the New King James Version): “On the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation … So you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this same day I will have brought your armies out of the land of Egypt.”
There is also the religious symbolism of immersion/baptism/purification in the Israelites as a body going “through” the waters of the Red Sea—“purified” of sin.
From the Herbert W. Armstrong College Bible Correspondence Course (Lesson 30): “The miraculous opening of the Red Sea and the completion of the Israelites’ escape from slavery took place before dawn on the seventh and last day of Unleavened Bread. Then on the daylight part of this annual holy sabbath, there was great rejoicing in celebration of their complete delivery from bondage in Egypt (Exodus 15:1-21).” The “song of Moses,” in Exodus 15, essentially serving as a worship service on the final holy day.
This seventh-day crossing was not just about leaving a piece of Egyptian territory. This was, more properly, about freedom from the grip of sin and Satan.
This all fits with a closer sea crossing, accessible within the first week of journey out of Egypt.
In similar manner, the giving of the law on Mount Sinai is anchored to the next holy day, the feast of Pentecost, or Shavuot, between six and seven weeks later (Exodus 19:1-2). This holy day pictures God’s covenant with His chosen people, His giving of the law (and, as described in the New Testament on this day, His Holy Spirit, resembling flames of fire—Acts 2). Again, fitting with a longer journey on the other side of the Red Sea.
It is no coincidence that each sacred day—Passover, the first day of Unleavened Bread, the last day of Unleavened Bread and Pentecost—matches with a major event of the Exodus. These festivals unlock the full meaning of the Exodus.
And alongside this spiritual significance, there is the physical significance of Israel controlling, at key times throughout its history, the very territory that included the mountain of God. This was the case during the reign of King Solomon, whose illustrious, rich and powerful kingdom typifies that of the coming Messiah. And that was the case in recent history, in 1967, during the Six-Day War—not only the significant recapture of Jerusalem for the first time in two millennia, but at the very same time the reclamation of the mountain of God in Sinai, with the recapture of the Sinai Peninsula. Again, as mentioned in Galatians 4—Jerusalem and Mount Sinai, together—a mountain that directly “corresponds to the present Jerusalem” (verse 25, Revised Standard Version). And can you guess when this happened—when the Israeli Army “set their camps” in the Sinai? June 5-6, 1967—just days before Shavuot, Pentecost!
Jabal Mousa was also the area in which plans began for a joint Jewish-Muslim-Christian “peace center” following the stunning peace accords between Egypt and Israel.
None of this symbolism can be said for the obscure northwestern region of Saudi Arabia.
So Why Was It Not Mentioned?
Why was the Gulf of Suez option not presented in the Patterns of Evidence film? In fact, more time was given to another theory, about a now dried-up potential crossing in the Israeli Negev desert at the site of Timna. Essentially, the Gulf of Aqaba was presented as the option ‘if you believe the biblical account,’ and the Bitter Lakes ‘if you prefer naturalistic explanations.’
The Bitter Lakes theory has long been a classic apologists’ version of events, a way to scientifically “explain” the Exodus account. Selecting this as a flipside argument is understandable, and a good choice. And the film did quite a good and certainly thorough job in presenting the Aqaba theory—necessary, given the amount of discourse about it today. But where was the Suez theory?
It seems that the singular focus on the Aqaba theory must have come entirely from a preconceived bias toward Jabal al-Lawz as the (apparently) most “biblically accurate” site of Mount Sinai. But as we have briefly covered, that’s far from the case—and even still, an even stronger biblical case could be made for a Gulf of Suez crossing on the way to Jabal al-Lawz, than an Aqaba-to-al-Lawz.
Also, there is the point that traditional Christianity has “done away with” the observance of the Days of Unleavened Bread. As such, the significance of the important festival has been lost, together with the symbolic connection of the seventh-day Red Sea crossing. (This, despite the fact that the New Testament commands the observance of this feast—e.g. 1 Corinthians 5:7-8.) As such, certain theories have allowed for a far longer journey to the Red Sea (also assuming that Josephus was in error with his timeline).
Still, the two-part documentary totaled four hours—leaving ample time to give attention to a Gulf of Suez crossing. Instead, it was simply passed over as ‘most scholars dismiss.’ But a bulk of scholars also dismiss a Gulf of Aqaba crossing—or any crossing at all.
The documentaries did get into a lot of technical biblical details. Detailed Bible study is vital—there’s not enough of it in the archaeological world. That’s where Patterns of Evidence has delivered a refreshing element to a rather stagnant world of scholarly doubt and skepticism.
But it can be too easy to get caught up in the “seaweed” (suph)—and lose the entire sea (yam). The sacred biblical symbolism and message of the departure from Egypt and crossing of the Red Sea is indelibly tied to the Passover/Days of Unleavened Bread, picturing for us the departure from and complete removal of sin. And the arrival at Mount Sinai, with the giving of the law and the flames of divine fire, are inseparable from the symbolism of the day of Pentecost—picturing our covenant to and relationship with God. That is the real biblical message of the Exodus.
Interpolate that onto a physical map; now there’s a biblical account that fits perfectly with a crossing at the Gulf of Suez.